大数据改变世界的五种方式

来源: | 发布时间:2020-10-15 05:28

随着电脑科技的发展,计算能力不再是像以前那样的“奢侈品”。现在的我们就彷如畅泳在一个巨大的数据水库,而这个数据库包罗万象:从繁忙时段一个明尼苏达州小镇的表现至在也门成功使用无人飞机轰炸的可能性。大数据的到来意味着公司,机构以及政府等可以同过收集,挖掘并利用这些庞大的数据区完成神奇的事情。

让我们看看神奇的大数据如何改变世界:

1.数据化身致命武器:

信息作为大数据时代最有效最具杀伤力的武器同时也正在被大量用于该时代的军备竞赛,但现今的军事技术数据来源正受限于卫星,无人飞行旗以及更多传统方式得到的数据。美国国防部启动一项名为XDATA的方案,其作为奥巴马政府发布的大数据倡议的一部分主要致力于以2.5亿美元研发一个分析大数据的系统。随着越来越多的有效运算,美军能够将PB级的数据运用到尖端优势上,例如让无人轰炸机变得前所未有的智能以及致命。

2.拯救地球:

除了让捕食者无人机更有威力和增加零售利润外,大数据更能造福世界。以开源的大数据平台Google Earth引擎为例,研究人员可利用它绘制出第一张莫斯科森林的高分辨率的地图。如果仅利用传统的电脑计算方法绘制需要3年时间,对比之下使用Google Earth仅需一天时间。

像这种大规模的数据集合能够让人类在系统层面上理解生态危机。我们知道越多地球生态系统以及天气形态变化数据,就越容易模型化未来环境的变迁,因而也能够在我们力所能及的时候去阻止不好的转变发生。

3.预测购物趋势:

消费者的购物趋势能够在以前的购物记录大数据挖掘中得出,销售公司不论大少均有可能预测到你需要买什么,他们甚至比你自己更懂你。因而从消费者当前购物数据中从大数据中能够获得大利润。网上零售商如亚马逊正在大量收集我们的购物以及网上购物数据,甚至线下零售商也开始紧跟这一趋势着手收集消费者的消费数据。一些聪明的公司看准这点,以RetailNext为例,它是为Brookstone 以及American Apparel等公司提供购物者浏览以及购物时的录像记录。 RetailNext将一个购买者在店铺移动的轨迹转化为上万数据点,就可以得到购物者在店内浏览商品的移动过程,停留点以及其与销售的相关性。

4.加速科学研究发展速度:

一直以来数据都是科学发现的支柱,现在由于大数据的发展以及高运算力的支持,科研步伐也正飞速向前。

以人类历史上科学成就指标性的 人类基因组计划为例,当时花费达30亿美元,耗时13年才完成大约含25000个基因的人类基因组测序及分析。若应用当代先进的数据收集分析方法,使用一个如U盘大小的装置区完成这项工作仅需几小时就足矣,其花费也仅仅是1000美元。

5.大数据导致更大的隐私威胁:

你也许只是从大“据”考虑,但是这句格言不再像以前一样好用了。若说大数据与广度攸关是正确无误的,但是深度对大数据来说也是同等重要的。

网络巨头如Facebook和Google不单单积累了广度上的数据—大量的用户(FB拥有9.55亿用户),他们对深度上的数据–用户(使用网络的)数据也了如指掌。譬如,他们知道你搜索的内容,你点击了什么页面以及你认识什么人。最大的网络大鳄拥有足以让他们无所不知的大量的数据。

在这里的技术力量,文化进步和利润的相交之处,有一件事是确定的:数据越大责任越大(蜘蛛侠中枪)。

下面是英文版本:

5 Ways ‘Big Data’ Is Changing the World

Computers are leaner, meaner and cheaper than ever before. With computing power no longer at a premium, we’re swimming in numbers that describe everything from how a small town in Minnesota behaves during rush hour to the probability of a successful drone strike in Yemen.

The advent of so-called “big data” means that companies, governments and organizations can collect, interpret and wield huge stores of data to an amazing breadth of ends. From shoe shopping to privacy concerns, here’s a look at five ways “big data” is changing the world:

1. Data as a deadly weapon: The traditional battlefield has dissolved into thin air. In the big data era, information is the deadliest weapon and leveraging massive amounts of it is this era’s arms race. But current military tech is buckling under the sheer weight of data collected from satellites, unmanned aircraft, and more traditional means.

As part of the Obama administration’s “Big Data Initiative,” the Department of Defense launched XDATA, a program that intends to invest $25 million toward systems that analyze massive data sets in record time. With more efficient number crunching, the U.S. military can funnel petabytes of data toward cutting edge advances, like making unmanned drones smarter and more deadly than ever.

Related: Surprising things you could learn from sequencing your DNA

2. Saving the Earth: Beyond powering predator drones and increasing retail revenue, big data can do a literal world of good. Take Google Earth Engine, an open source big data platform that allowed researchers to map the first high-resolution map of Mexico’s forests. The map would have taken a traditional computer over three years to construct, but using Google Earth Engine’s massive data cloud it was completed in the course of a day.

Massive sets of data like this can help us understand environmental threats on a systemic level. The more data we have about the changing face of the earth’s ecosystems and weather patterns, the better we can model future environmental shifts — and how to stop them while we still can.

3. Watching you shop: Big data can mean big profits. By understanding what you want to buy today, companies large and small can figure out what you’ll want to buy tomorrow — maybe even before you do.

Online retailers like Amazon scoop up information about our shopping and e-window shopping habits on a huge scale, but even brick and mortar retailers are starting to catch on. A clever company called RetailNext helps companies like Brookstone and American Apparel record video of shoppers as they browse and buy.

By transforming a single shopper’s path into as many as 10,000 data points, companies can see how they move through a store, where they pause and how that tracks with sales.

Related: The Future of Shopping: How technology will change the way you buy

4. Scientific research in overdrive: Data has long been the cornerstone of scientific discovery, and with big data — and the big computing power necessary to process it — research can move at an exponentially fast clip.

Take the Human Genome Project, widely considered to be one of the landmark scientific accomplishments in human history. Over the course of the $3 billion project, researchers analyzed and sequenced the roughly 25,000 genes that make up the human genome in 13 years. With today’s modern methods of data collection and analysis, the same process can be completed in hours — all by a device the size of a USB memory stick and for less than $1,000.

5. Big data, bigger privacy concerns: You might just be a number in the grand scheme of things, but that adage isn’t as reassuring as it used to be. It’s true that big data is about breadth, but it’s about depth, too.

Web mega-companies like Facebook and Google not only scoop up data on a huge number of users — 955 million, in Facebook’s case — but they collect an incredible depth of data as well. From what you search and where you click to who you know (and who they know, and who they know), the web’s biggest players own data stockpiles so robust that they border on omniscient.

Where technological power, cultural advancement and profit intersect, one thing’s clear: with big data comes even bigger responsibility.

自:36大数据



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